Furthermore, there are many ligaments involve in the foot. Excessive stretching or bending of the foot can cause a sprain of the ligament (see ankle sprains).
Also, a heel spur is an excessive growth of a bone at the base of the heel (on the calcaneal bone) or on the side of the heel. Therefore, usually secondary to chronic plantar fasciitis and constant excessive pull of the muscle and the fascia along the foot.
Bunions are known by a lateral deviation of the big toe, and creating a look of an enlarge bone where the toe meets the foot. Use of improper foot wear, such as tight high heels in long term are main causes of bunions.
In conclusion, extra pressure onto the side of the big toe, pushing it inwards towards the other toes are also the other causes for bunions. It can cause pain when walking, skin irritation or redness, and shifts the toe towards the second toe.
At Queen West Physiotherapy, we recommend proper custom made orthotics specifically for bunions. these can include bunion cushions or spacers.