Osteoporosis is a disease of the bone that leads to a decrease in mineral content and weakening of the bone which may lead to fracture especially of the hip, spine and wrist. It is most common in women compared to men. The diagnosis of osteoporosis is determined by t-score of bone mineral density.
Risk Factors For Osteoporosis
Risk factors for developing primary osteoporosis are postmenopausal, family history, low body weight, little or no physical activity, diet low in calcium and vitamin D and smoking.
It develops owing to other medical conditions like GI disease, hyperthyroidism, chronic renal failure, excessive alcohol consumption and use of certain medicine such as gluco-corticoids.
Prevention of osteoporosis – recommended by National Osteoporosis Foundations
- Diet rich in calcium and vitamin D
- Weight bearing exercise
- Healthy lifestyle with moderate alcohol consumption and no smoking
- Talking to healthcare provider
Recommendations for Exercises
- Weight bearing exercises such as walking, jogging and stairs
- Non-weight bearing exercise such as bicycle
- Strength training of 8-10 exercises that target major muscle groups
Precautions and Contra-indications
- Osteoporosis changes the shape of the vertebral bodies leading to kyphosis, so flexion activities and exercises like supine curl-ups and sit-ups should be avoided. It can lead to risk of vertebral fractures.
- Avoid flexion and rotation combination of the trunk